Welcome to Biomedicine & Prevention

Biomedicine & Prevention is a peer-reviewed, open access journal that publishes original research articles as well as review articles in several areas of the life sciences. The journal’s Editorial Board covers several subject areas mainly focusing on prevention and health promotion. Prevention is covered not as an exclusive health competence discipline but in a holistic way, including environmental sciences, engineering, physics, legal implications and legislation.

The Governance of Prevention in France

Prevention in France is in a phase of significant development. The strategies and policies in the health field over the last decade have shown an increasing focus on prevention. The most recent reforms approved in early 2016 place the focus of the health system on prevention, with particular reference to the promotion of health and wellbeing in young generations and prevention of health inequalities.

A new approach to assess the health of workers

Occupational health represents a main issue worldwide because workers amount to half the world’s population. Aim of this work is to assess general health status among COVA’s workers, using an innovative approach, integrating elements of epidemiology and of community health. According to clinical records, from 1999 to 2018 hearing disorders (19.6%) represent the most common diseases among Centro Olio Val d’Agri (COVA)’s workers, with a significant increase in prevalence rate compared with Italy (11.29%, p<0.0001). Contrariwise, a number of non-communicable diseases (hypertension, diseases of vertebral column, musculoskeletal disorders, hearth rhythm disorders, gastrointestinal disorders) were significantly decreased compared with national data. Also prevalence rate for neoplasms was lower than Italian benchmark: 12 cases of malignant tumor were detected, with a prevalence of 1.44% (National data 4.90%, p<0.0001). Concerning individual lifestyles, COVA’s workers show significantly worse personal behaviors compared with the national data: an overweight/obesity rate of 62% was recorded, compared with a national data of 42.2% (p<0.0001); sedentary workers represent the 54.3% of the sample (national data 32.5%, p<0.0001); the 81% of the examined workers declares to consume alcohol (national data 55.1%, p<0.0001). Differently, no significant differences in tobacco smoking rate was recorded in comparison with national data.

In vitro experimental models to study the efficiency of the placental barrier for environmental toxicants: tumor cell lines versus trophoblast primary cells.

Mammalian development is characterized by an evolutionary innovation represented by the trophoblast, which contributes to the formation of the placenta, a transient organ regulating exchange of nutrients, gases and waste material between the mother and the developing fetus. Survival of the fetus relies on proper development of the placenta, which is also responsible for the formation of a selective barrier that protects the embryo, at least in part, from xenobiotics. The barrier function of the placenta has been investigated for viral/bacterial transfer and for drug and nanoparticulate matter access to the fetal compartment. Since species specific structural differences exist, results on the ability of xenobiotics to access the placental barrier obtained from animal studies cannot be automatically transposed to humans. However, in vivo studies on human placenta permeability cannot be performed, and the use of in vitro alternative methods are in great need. In the present mini-review we will present and critically discuss the available in vitro methods that have been so far developed and present a new model system that we have recently established.

A technical proposal for active sensing monitoring activities in the area of Viggiano (south of Italy) and in rural and urban areas: LIDAR/DIAL techniques to detect the presence of pollutants and to control biomass combustion products like CO or PM10

In this work the authors propose a technical solution for active sensing monitoring in the area of Viggiano and, in general, in urban and rural areas that can be affected by the t diffusion of pollutants or by the dispersion of biomass combustion products like CO (Carbon monoxide) or PM10 (Particulate Matter). It can be obtained through the use of two laser techniques: LIDAR (LIght Detection And Ranging) to detect pollutants in atmosphere and DIAL (Differential Absorption LIDAR) to identify those pollutants and the relative concentrations. The principles of work of these techniques, the systems developed and the results of experimental campaigns will be shown to demonstrate the potentialities of the laser applications for environmental survey in open atmosphere.

An informatics tool to analyse child growth indexes: first results of Mid-Upper Arm Circumference (MUAC) software

Nowadays, health problems related to malnutrition still threats several countries. Undernutrition problems are more spread in low-income countries and high level of this malnutrition usually led to infant and premature deaths. Obesity and overweight usually ran to several diseases such as diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. The World Health Organization has been produced the child growth standards. These standards are made through statistical models those give how the examined child is far from healthy growth values. They allow to monitor, prevent and mitigate child malnutrition and growth disorders. This work shows a new software able to analyse large numbers of data regarding the Mid-Upper Arm Circumference. Furthermore, the software elaborates statistical data in graphical forms, such as gaussian and cumulative distributions, scatter plots and warnings.

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